Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, − °C, or − ° F. Bose-Einstein condensate (plural Bose-Einstein condensates). (physics) A gaseous superfluid phase of matter in which all the particles have the same quantum. In the left plot, no Bose Einstein Condensation took place. One can see that the energy distribution of the atoms is given by the Bose Einstein statistics. In the.

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This form of matter was predicted in by Albert Einstein on the basis of the quantum formulations of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. Research on BECs has expanded the understanding of quantum physics and has led to the discovery of new physical konednsat.

Bose–Einstein condensate

BEC theory traces back kondsnsatwhen Bose considered how groups of photons behave. The former type, called bosonsincludes photons, whose spin is 1. In contrast, an unlimited number of bosons can have the same energy state and share a single quantum state.

One of the breakthroughs depended on the novel technique of laser cooling and trapping, in bse the radiation pressure of a laser beam cools and localizes atoms by slowing them down.

Phillips shared the Nobel Prize for Physics. The second breakthrough depended on improvements in magnetic confinement in order to hold the atoms in place without a material container.

We can poke it and prod it and look at this stuff in a way no one has been able to before. BECs are related to two remarkable low-temperature phenomena: BEC research has yielded new atomic and optical physics, such as the atom laser Ketterle demonstrated in Jondensat conventional light laser emits a beam of coherent photons; they are all exactly in phase and can be focused to an extremely small, bright spot.


Similarly, an atom laser produces a coherent beam of atoms that can be focused at high intensity.

i. What are the properties of a Bose Einstein Condensate?

Potential applications include more-accurate atomic clocks and enhanced techniques to make electronic chips, or integrated circuits. The most intriguing property of BECs is that they can slow down light.

Since then, Hau and others have completely halted and stored a light pulse within a BEC, later releasing the light unchanged or sending it to a second BEC. These manipulations hold promise for new types of light-based telecommunicationsoptical storage of data, and quantum computingthough the low-temperature requirements of BECs offer practical difficulties. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Phillips the Nobel Prize for Physics. These atoms are said to be condensed. It is widely believed that…. In this new state of matter, all the atoms are in the same coherent quantum state.


As a consequence, the atoms lose their individual identities, and their quantum mechanical wavelike properties become dominant. Research tool superfluidity In superfluidity: Help us improve this article!

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States of Matter: Bose-Einstein Condensate

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