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HISTORIA IDEI POLITYCZNYCH FILIPOWICZ PDF

7 J. Locke, Drugi traktat o rządzie, [in:] Historia idei politycznych. Wybór tekstów, S. Filipowicz, M. Mielczarek, K. Pieliński, M. Tański, tom I, Wydawnictwo Uni-. 1. St. Filipowicz, A. Mielczarek, K. Pieliński, M. Tański (red.), Historia idei politycznych. Wybór tekstów, WUW, Warszawa 2. M. Festenstein, M. Kenny (eds.). Współczesna myśl polityczna: wybór tekstów źródłowych by Krzysztof Karolczak( Book) 3 editions Historia idei politycznych: wybór tekstów(Book) in Polish.

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The aim of this article is to provide an empirical test of the model of non-economic transfers by migrants such as values, attitudes, behaviours, lifestyles, transnational social networks, know-how, skills and knowledge. Hustoria first part of the article discusses the current state of Polish society, identifies the direction of social change in Poland since and analyses the mutual dependency between social change and migration.

Within each of the three categories of closure — socio-economic, cultural and psycho-social — more specific barriers to non-economic transfers are tested, e. An exploratory test of the model uses existing empirical data from publicly available statistical sources and research projects in migration studies; however, more in-depth analysis is still required. By providing a framework that includes barriers to non-economic transfers, this model contributes to research on the impact of non-economic transfers on the dynamics and direction of social change in Poland.

It is relatively easy for researchers to trace the economic transfers of migrants and to measure their volume and direction through bank transfers, and household, educational and business investments. In the Polish context some of these questions have been raised in public debate around the post-accession migration afterwhen, within just eleven years, around 2 million Polish citizens left the country for the UK, Germany, Ireland, Sweden and other Western European destinations.

Therefore, the society of the sending country has specific social expectations of members of its diaspora and return migrants. People quite often see returnees as possessing undefined qualities, knowledge and ideas. Studies that see return migration as the main determinant explaining the direction and scope of social change in Poland after at macro-structural level make a critical mistake.

If the wider socio-cultural context of the post-communist period in Polish history is omitted, such studies fail to include the endogenous determinants which principally explain the phenomenon of non-economic remittances. The present study understands migration as an integral part of wider revolutionary change in Poland after The impact of post-accession migration on the home country should not be treated in isolation.

It has been impeded by wider social change and is the consequence of endogenous determinants, but it plays a significant role in the dynamics and direction of the change.

Therefore the relationship between social change and migration is reciprocal. In a sense migration is both the effect and one of the determinants of social change Figure 1.

The process of social change is multifaceted and cannot be instigated by an individual alone or by a group of individuals. However, the place of the individual actor in the process may be incredibly important, accelerating or impeding the whole process.

historia idei politycznych filipowicz pdf merge

An interesting example of the role of individuals as actors of social change comes from a study of the return migration of the second generation of Poles from the UK in the late s. These respondents were undoubtedly actively involved in Polish matters and willing to take part in Polish economic transformation. Their unique competences in terms of language skills and knowledge of cultural patterns made them perfect candidates to be sent by British companies such as advertising agencies to set up new branches.

Scholars usually describe this process as a shift from one type of state to the other type of state, illustrated by binary oppositions see Table 1. The present study focuses on two modernisation and post-modernisation of four possible theories illustrated by the comparative statistical data.

Modernisation theory — however controversial — emphasises the shift from a pre-modern to a modern society.

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This direction is seen as positive mainly in economic terms. Poland, for many decades cut off from market-oriented Western countries, is seen as technically and socially undeveloped.

Therefore the social changes of the last 26 years are measured by the decreasing distance from Western European countries. The distance is still significant; however indicators such as gross national income GNI or the number of internet users show rising values.

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According to modernisation theory, the potential direction of social change is towards well-developed countries, such as Norway and the UK — the destinations for thousands of Polish poliycznych migrants. The table indicates the main fields in which Poland ranked 35th historla HDI in might be seen as distanced from Norway 1st and the UK 14th: Poland has a high rate of youth unemployment — more than three times higher than in Norway However, crucial to our analysis is the fact that the average annual HDI growth for Poland is almost twice as high as for Norway or the UK 0.

We might interpret this trend as an attempt to make up for the lost decades of its communist past. It sees the shift from modern to post-modern society and its culture mainly in terms of values and identity. The differences between gistoria two models of society are based histori two oppositions: For Polish people traditional values like religion are still significantly more important than for the citizens of Norway or the UK Polish people agree that family and work are very important in their lives.

poltiycznych

They are much less oriented towards participation in polittcznych and political life. The share of Poles who value friends is Polish nationalism in general should be seen as ethnic nationalism in contrast to Norwegian or British civic nationalism. Norwegian and British people see themselves as autonomous individuals Poland versus Norway and the UK.

World Values Survey Association www. To see the change towards post-materialist values in Poland one has to analyse the whole process of value transformation since the s. Since the s there has been a gradual decline in the importance of traditional values, such as children, marriage and God. At the same time Polish people have become more oriented towards post-materialist values, such as health, friends, optimism, freedom and a strong personality.

The shift is significant, leading to a more autonomous and individually oriented society in which the rights of all people are respected, with the right of self-fulfillment being one of the most important.

Comparison of the data relating pklitycznych such values as money Data related to work The process of post-modernisation in Poland since the late s is relatively easy to understand. However, according to many thinkers such as Zygmunt Baumanthe very value of work to individuals changes in a post-modern society.

Work no longer offers security and an anchor in the social structure; neither is it the source of identity. Sociology as an academic discipline was born to describe and understand various dynamic changes in social life caused by industrialisation and urbanisation. At least three conceptualisations of social change rooted in the nineteenth century can be identified: The common ground for all these theories is the belief that the process of change can be described in the form of a single scheme.

This approach is present in modernisation theory. The theory of social cycles is as old as philosophy. After the period of equilibrium there is fliipowicz period of disequilibrium after which the society returns to a state of equilibrium.

The Marxist conceptualisation of hiistoria change refers to the idea of revolution instigated by social actors changing dominant social relations. Their actions, however, are determined by their positions in the social structure.

Twentieth-century thinkers such as Charles TillyNorbert EliasAnthony Giddens and Margaret Archer criticised classical theories of social change. Instead of deterministic visions of the process, they emphasise the role of free choice and the decisions of individual and collective filipowic, their emotions and whims.

Return Migration and Social Change in Poland: ‘Closures’ to Migrants’ Non-Economic Transfers

Recent theories of social change are focused on understanding the process of change as multi-directional and open. Adherents of the new approach to social change describe society as in statu nascendi.

Society is understood as the process by which individuals and groups generate and reproduce the context of their own existence. Social structure is the starting point of their actions — on the one hand it can be treated as a closure as we call it in our study barrieron the other hand, as stimuli for actions aimed at changing the structure.

This approach is present in both historical sociology and the theory of agency. In the case of historical sociology Norbert Elias, Charles Tilly social change is the effect of many simultaneous and intersecting processes which may be concurrent or divergent, but the main initiator of each process is the individual or collective actor. The same rule of the actor in the process of social change is present in the theory of agency Anthony Giddens, Margaret Archer.

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The ultimate engine of change is the agency of individuals and the community. Social change occurs on the one hand thanks to the creativity of the actor, and on the other hand is determined by the social structure. The present study understands social change as the difference between the condition of the social system at one moment in time and its condition at another moment in time Sztompka The difference can be related to the composition of society, its social and cultural structures, its borders, the environment or the function of institutions in the society.

Our model makes use of both classical and more recent theories of social change. We argue that such fusion is possible and fruitful as it allows macro and micro levels of analysis to be linked to explain the role of the individual in the whole process of change. In our study of the process of social change in Poland sincewe have used essential data to provide the broad context within which migration ought to be analysed.

Both modernisation and post-modernisation theories can be useful in the study of non-economic transfers by migrants. The former is focused on economic issues and the latter on the social and cultural aspects of change.

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Our conceptualisation of social change regards the return migrant as an actor who might be either the initiator of one of the processes of social change or its propagator. The return migrant as polityczych actor of social change is the stimulus in the process of both modernisation and post-modernisation at various levels: Following Agnieszka Weinarwe make polityvznych clear distinction between effective actor and potential actor histogia change.

The effective actor has a measurable impact on social change e. All of them have their advantages and constraints in empirical practice. The most popular concept refers to the idea of social networks. The concept of social networks as popularised by Mark Granovetteris understood as the iedi of relations between individuals.

The volume of publications on social networks is huge and exceeds the size of the article. Among many who have contributed to our better understanding of this phenomena are such authors as Douglas Massey a, bAlejandro Portes and Adela Pellegrino In the case of migrants their social network is often based on transnational relations.

Thanks to these mainly weak ties, the migrant can access various resources, so the network becomes the key to resources and might be understood as a resource in itself. On the other hand, this conceptualisation is too narrow and does not allow for the circulation of resources and their impact on social change to be explored. Another conceptualisation of non-economic remittances is social capital, a very popular concept that ivei been exploited by ivei social researchers, thinkers and policy makers.

Among the many we mention proponent of the concept Pierre BourdieuRobert Putnam and Francis Fukuyama Bourdieu understands the concept as the aggregate of the actual or potential resources that are linked to possession of durable networks of more or less institutionalised relationships.

Putnam understands social capital as funded by trust, horizontal networks and the norm of reciprocity. All the authors underline the fact that social capital is the determinant of economic growth.

According to this concept individual capital is observable in four forms: A more useful concept is the idea of human capital, discussed mainly by economists. James Coleman understands it as the capital created by changes in persons that bring about skills and capabilities enabling them to act in new ways.

There has been increasing interest in the concept of social remittances popularised by Historoa Levitt LevittHsitoria and Lamba-Nieves