geologia regionalna polski pdf chomikuj. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for geologia regionalna polski pdf chomikuj. Will be grateful. m below the ground level (Hydrogeologia regionalna Polski, vol. II, PGI Hydrogeologia regionalna Polski tom II, PIG-PIB Warszawa Wróć do. A. Różkowski, Zapadlisko górnośląskie, In. B. Paczyński, A. Sadurski, Hydrogeologia regionalna Polski tom II. Wody mineralne, lecznicze i termalne oraz.
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The key issues focus on water requirements and hydrogeologi contamination risks at drilling and stimulation hydraulic fracturing stages.
Oil and gas exploration and production operations give rise to a number of hydrogeoligia on groundwater use and protection capabilities.
Most of them are answered in this section. Considering the approach to delivery of operations that are associated with exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbons shale gasas well as existing available and commonly applied technologies, potential risks to the groundwater are expected to occur in the following stages:.
Gas-bearing shales occur In Poland at depths ranging from 3 to 5 km, in areas of different geology and hydrogeological conditions.
The maximum depth of freshwater aquifer occurrence in Poland is estimated at approx. The depth may vary, depending on both regional and local factors. Moreover, mineral and thermal waters occur in the existing shale gas exploration areas. The depths to hydrogeolobia waters range from m below the ground near Torun to over m below the ground level for example north and northeast of Lublin. Thermal waters occur at a depth of approx.
geologia regionalna polski pdf chomikuj
Due to the depth of gas-bearing shale occurrence, drilling wells have to pass through local aquifers that frequently are the only source of water supply to the local residents. Drilling operations may potentially contaminate the aquifers as a result of:. At this stage, the risk of groundwater contamination is effectively eliminated by:.
The depth to gas-bearing shale rocks helps to rebionalna the risk of groundwater contamination.
Shale gas exploration/production and the groundwater
A thick overburden of impervious rocks isolates freshwater aquifers that occur at depths of up to m from the ground level Fig. Hydraulic fracturing is a technical procedure which establishes a network of induced fractures in the shale formation.
Interconnected fractures form a path of gas migration to the borehole and then to the surface. Normally, the range of hydraulically induced fractures is approx. The fracturing fluid is composed of water approx. Potential groundwater contamination risks from reservoir stimulation are associated with:.
Gas may be produced for tm decades from several tens of horizontal wells drilled out from a single site. Well ;olski and site reclamation is the final stage when gas production is discontinued. Its purpose is to restore the original intended hudrogeologia of the site area. Exceptionally, well leakage and migration of reservoir gas to aquifers and the ground surface may occur following well abandonment. In that case the investor should prepare a recovery plan and cooperate with competent authority so as to minimize environmental impacts and restore integrity of the abandoned well.
Drilling operations may potentially contaminate the aquifers as a result of: At this stage, the risk of groundwater contamination is effectively eliminated by: This makes it possible to design and construct poski well that is safe to the groundwater Fig. Seismic surveys do not yydrogeologia a risk to groundwater pilski, provided that they are performed according to applicable procedures, isolation of aquifers with casing strings cemented over the entire length Fig.
Reservoir stimulation hydraulic fracturing stage Hydraulic fracturing is a technical procedure which establishes a hhdrogeologia of induced fractures in the shale formation. Potential groundwater contamination risks from reservoir stimulation are associated with: Gas production stage Gas may be produced for several decades from several tens of horizontal wells drilled out from a single site. At this stage potential risks to groundwater are: With time casing pipes may corrode and cement bonds fail.
In that case penetration to the aquifers is possible, hydrogeologla penetration of pollutants from the site surface, emergencies e.
The risks are effectively eliminated by: Well abandonment and site reclamation stage Well abandonment and site reclamation is the final stage when gas production is discontinued. If not delivered properly, well abandonment operations may involve: At this stage the risk can regioonalna mitigated by: English versions of environmental research reports are available.
General Directorate for Environmental Protection made available online the English versions of the reports on the results of environmental studies delivered at shale gas exploration in Poland.
geologia regionalna polski pdf chomikuj – PDF Files
Environmental Protection Agency published a report on the chemicals and water used in hydraulic fracture stimulation. Hydraulic fracturing companies use different chemicals in the process.
Shale gas exploration has no significant effect on the environment. Waste Management – Part 3. The approach to the rdgionalna of extractive wastes from shale gas exploration. Shale gas – a brief history of prospecting in the world and Poland.