Devido à sua importância para o país, foram sancionadas a Lei nº , .. Disponível em: [ Links ]. The interpreters of Sign Language have an essential role in the education of [Paper reference 1]. 6 set. No caso dos relativamente incapazes, a lei não lhes retira a ingerência ou a participação na vida jurídica. Eles praticam os atos em seu próprio.
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In this article, we examine the activity of simultaneous interpreting from Portuguese to Brazilian Sign Language Libras in the theatrical sphere, based on a dialogue between interpreting and theater studies, and theoretical formulations by Bakhtin and the Circle.
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Our objective is to investigate verbal-visual discourse and its sense effects on Libras interpreting by means of a qualitative analytical-descriptive study of two theater performances in which Sign Language Translators and Interpreters SLTI interpreted them so as to guarantee communication accessibility to deaf people. We investigated elements that influenced SLTI enunciations while interpreting in sign language, taking into account the texts that circulate in the theatrical sphere.
These texts constitute a verbal-visual totality which creates an indissoluble whole directly influencing their forms of production, circulation, and reception.
Considering the cultural-educational potential of cultural spaces, there is an increasing number of professional Sign Language Translators and Interpreters henceforth SLTI 1 acting in the theatrical sphere – in which there are also musical performances – in order to meet a demand for accessibility in Brazilian Sign Language Libras for the deaf public and to guarantee the presence of this audience in these performances.
In this article, we present a study on the activity of simultaneous interpreting from Portuguese to Libras in that context, on the basis of a dialogue involving interpreting and theater studies as well as theoretical formulations by Bakhtin and the Circle. There are different challenges and ramifications constituting the work of professional SLTIs in their task of mobilizing discourses from different genres and spheres of activity.
These professionals work in several spheres: They face daily challenges regarding intermodal and interlingual translation and interpreting, since in both translation and interpreting they work with a language pair in which one of the languages is oral Portuguese and the other is visual-gestural Libras.
If in every sphere there are many challenges affecting interlingual interpreting, all of which imply a complex web of relationships, when we deal with texts from the artistic sphere, and more specifically from theater, there are several factors to be considered in addition to cultural and linguistic transfers produced.
Among them are text history, its impact in social life, and the sense effects it triggers. The verbal-visual dimension, i. To reach our objective, we present, after this introduction, some theoretical and methodological assumptions which constitute the basis of our analysis.
Our research is a descriptive-analytical qualitative study of a corpus composed of two theatrical performances interpreted to Libras. In data analysis, we will examine the unrepeatability of the theatrical scene PAVIS, athe extent to which the verbal-visual dimension is constitutive of theatrical performances and its influence in Libras interpreting.
Rather, as it seeks forms to produce and establish senses, it traverses a series of dimensions: There are many authors who understand translation and interpreting both as similar and distinct processes at the same time.
But it is accepted that there is a difference between the specific activity of written texts translation — which involves texts written in a source language and a substantial time for executing the work, the possibility of consulting dictionaries, correcting and adjusting the text that is produced in the target language — and the activity of simultaneous interpreting, which happens in a given limited space and time and works with texts in their final version just as it is expressed in the target language cf.
This explains how important it is to consider interpreting studies as an independent disciplinary field. More specifically, conference IS focused exclusively on the process of interpreting and approached the challenges interpreters face leu interpreting as essentially cognitive.
In addition, TS appeared as a discipline from literature and cultural studies, whereas the pioneers in interpreting research had no academic background and wanted to establish an autonomous discipline.
Seleskovitch sought to explain the interpreting process from her first published works, having an avid interest in psychology, cognitive structures and processing operations, such as short-term memory and knowledge use. Even understanding interpreters as agents who create bridges from source to target language, these theories did not approach the conditions or contexts in which interpreting happens or the countless variables that may affect the enunciation act.
Several inquiries appeared in the field of conference interpreting from the s, influenced by cognition studies, cognitive psychology and neurolinguistics, which, with empirical and experimental surveys, aimed at describing and presenting interpreting specificities as translation of oral texts in face-to-face interactions. Even so, the focus of these inquiries was only interpreting processes, training and quality.
Sign Languages Translation and Interpreting Studies emerged in Brazil in a significant way after Libras achieved language status through Act In this study, we take sign language translation and interpreting as a discursive practice which occurs in a concrete enunciative situation and mobilizes discourses from many different spheres of language use.
It is, thus, different from studies that are based on linguistic theories of a structural or formalistic nature. Therefore, it is important to consider the concrete situation of enunciation and the social environment in which it happens:. By understanding that every utterance is part of a discursive chain, Voloshinov points to a continuous and organic unity between forms for communication, forms of utterances and their themes.
Each period and social grouping has had its lel repertoire of speech forms for ideological communication in human behaviour.
Each set of cognate forms, i. Approaching interlingual interpreting 104366 a discursive practice, Sobral and Nascimento propose that it mobilizes genres in circulation; that is, interpreters, during their activity, mobilize discourses which are already part of social-historical ways of symbolically constituting the world 11 and are constituted by specific semiotic-ideological systems. These genres manifest in contexts of cultural coexistence, and they convey the exchange of knowledge, cultures and traditions produced among different people en within the complex human language.
According to Sobralp. The task SLTIs have of mobilizing wm from diverse, complete and complex genres presents countless challenges and nuances. When kei language pair being translated or interpreted involves a visual-spatial language, it is necessary to think that the whole architectonic construction, the project of elements that compose this enunciation, the discourses, the cultural context and all the visual interferences in the physical space are highly relevant.
Besides, all these elements compose the genre discussed here. Brait points that Voloshinov was even included in Tekstura: Russian Essays on Visual Culture, 18 an essay collection. If studies on verbal and visual communication are developed separately in several areas of knowledge with a respectable tradition, today the verbal-visual condition of language has a lel place as social, cultural, discursive production and, for this reason, also as a study eli BRAIT, However, these dimensions are organized in one plane of expression, in a combination of materialities, in an organized, material expression […] BRAIT,p.
For this study, we understand the verbal-visual dimension as an articulation of verbal oral and written and visual elements multiple semiosis used in the construction of senseswhich form an indissoluble whole and are constituted from an ideological sphere that directly affects its forms of production, circulation and reception BRAIT, It is necessary to consider text in its broad sense, distant from the notion that it has only a verbal nature.
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Regarding the translation of texts in this sphere, Pavis points out that what is important to translation is what happens on lfi it is not a mere interlingual translation of dramatic texts. The author presents two pieces of evidence: In this perspective, translators and translation texts do not function as equivalents, but inevitably as mediators, since they are situated 1436 an intersection of two sets to which they belong, being part both of the text and culture from where lej mobilization of discourses occurs, and of text and culture into which the text is translated.
This phenomenon is applicable to any linguistic translation; however, on stage there is also the need for an approach that considers the specific enunciative situation. In general, translators in this sphere work with a written text that was uttered in a concrete staging act and plan their translation knowing it is not possible to maintain the same starting situation, for it is to be enunciated in a yet unknown scene PAVIS, a. They are texts in which verbal-visuality presents itself as constitutive, making it impossible to exclude either the verbal or the visual dimension and, specially, the forms integrated by these dimensions to produce meaning BRAIT,p.
It sm necessary to think Brazilian Sign Language interpreting in the theater beyond the perspective of dramatic texts translation, taking interpreting into consideration, for interpreters are in an enunciative situation at the same time the theatrical scene happens, with all its verbal-visuality.
Verbal-visuality helps build the object of knowledge from a theoretical-methodological perspective. The visual dimension, thus, constitutively interacts with the verbal dimension or vice-versaadding value to it. Without this visual-verbal play, it is me possible to build the object of knowledge, nor the subjects involved in the construction and the reception of knowledge BRAIT,p. In addition to the verbal-visual dimension we have already discussed along the text, another basis for this study is the conception of the forms of utterances.
The whole is, after all, defined by its boundaries, and these boundaries run along the line of contact between a given utterance and the extraverbal and verbal i. Therefore, the analysis to be presented here is based on the premise that visual and verbal dimensions are intertwined in the texts and that these utterances are part of a discursive chain in constant dialogue with other utterances.
In this sense, we understand that the professional SLTIs who are on stage integrate the scene and, thus, dialogue with it and become part of the text and the theatrical scene. That way, every act integrates content and form, meaning and theme, theoretical elaboration and materiality, being in the world and categorizing the world, repeatability and unrepeatability, being perceived in a specific context and situation SOBRAL, Another important theoretical-methodological assumption we must point out is that no method for analyzing theatrical scenes exhausts all the possibilities of observing them, and, for this reason.
In other words, when dealing with the reality of language and observing an enunciative project for the establishment of sense effects according to the genre to which the textual materiality belongs, we cannot assume that we are able to register or describe all variables that an enunciation comprises. In dealing with a theatrical scene, especially, we must be aware of the unrepeatability of that scene, which is singular the moment it happens.
We must also consider that the activity of simultaneous interpreting deals with immediacy and unpredictability. Thus, even when SLTIs rehearse or study the script of the performance, the interpreting act will only take place at the moment the scene is actually staged.
Accordingly, in order to observe some of the variables present in Libras enunciations, in this analysis we carry out a qualitative descriptive-analytical study of two performances in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which provided Libras interpreting by hired SLTIs. In addition, we applied a questionnaire so that SLTIs could describe lri they prepared themselves for interpreting and give their impressions about their own work at the very moment the performance occurred.
According to Brait, the adopted theoretical perspective imposes obligations to the analyst, since. Before we analyzed and interpreted data, we described a the characteristics of the cultural institution where the performance took place in relation to 14036 concept of accessibility; b the information about each performance, such as its duration, synopsis and the means of publicizing it; c the description of the stage setting, costumes and lighting; d the issues related to actors acting and interacting with the audience and the setting elements; e the number of SLTIs, their positioning and work arrangements; f the interpreting strategies used by SLTIs to indicate deictic elements.
As research subjects, we chose two professional SLTIs hired by the cultural institution and the actors. Both SLTIs have more than ek years of experience in interpreting.
In the two theatrical performances – hereinafter P1 and P2 – the Libras interpreting was done in teamwork by the two professional SLTIs, who alternated between interpreting and support. She was in the audience where 10463 could see all the performance, in front of the SLTI who was interpreting Chart In both performances analyzed, the SLTIs were under a fixed-focus spotlight. The two cameras were placed in those positions to help us observe the scene as a whole, and especially to record the production of utterances in Libras, as it is important to observe linguistic materiality in which utterances are produced.
During video montage Figure 03 we used the video of the scene as a whole, but enlarged the video of the interpreters so we could better see the details of the production of sign language utterances.
Among the many verbal-visual elements of the theatrical scene, for this study, we selected excerpts from those verbal-visual elements incorporated into SLTIs enunciation at the very moment the scene happened. The scene presented in the following excerpt Chart 02 belongs to a character who makes another one read a text composed of combined letters projected onto the wall of a cube, where, supposedly, the full name of the first character would be written.
Li, the letters are scrambled and do not necessarily form words. The character then leans in the direction of the text as if she were trying to fmbut what she pronounces with difficulty is not the projected text. The Libras interpreter used the following strategy: To indicate the 104336 who tries to read the letters, the interpreter lowers her body, approaching the projection to read the projected text.
The interpreter then begins to spell the letters in an attempt to form a word Chart 02 – Scene B. Even after the projection stops, the narrated text keeps on making reference to this reading attempt, and the interpreter continues to sign as if the wall were in the same space that she had previously indicated Chart 02 – Scene 1046.
In the next excerpt, from P2 Charts 03 and 04we observe the same object on stage a paper roll representing an 1046 project held by the character in different ways.
In Chart 03we observe Scene D, in which the character holds the paper that is on a table. The text spoken by the actress to refer to her architectural project is: I started to understand that places are not made to dream [ She turns her head and sees the actress holding the papers on a table. She then chooses to point and delineate the space the paper occupies on the table. In Chart 04 – Scene E, a similar process happens; in it, the interpreter looks again at the scene and sees the project paper in another position.
This makes her adopt another strategy: All these study processes were fundamental for them to make decisions, since their position in the pit did not allow them to watch the whole scene at the very moment it happened. It is in these study periods that SLTIs explore and find out clues regarding the elements that will constitute utterances produced during the theatrical performance.
What we have presented has not exhausted the description and analysis of the object; on the contrary, we use this reflection as a basis for opening new areas of discussion. This way, it becomes very clear that language production constitutes a highly complex activity of sense production that not only actualizes on the basis of the linguistic elements selected and their forms of organization, but requires of interlocutors the mobilization of a huge set of socio-cognitive, cultural, historical knowledge, in sum, of the whole context, the way it is highly conceptualized, as well as its reconstruction at the moment of verbal interaction KOCH,p.
We understand, dialogically, that every text is heterogeneous, filled by other texts, is in a discursive chain and is a place of interaction between social actors that constitute themselves and are constituted therein KOCH, The description and analysis of a small part of our research corpus do not entirely apprehend our research, but endeavour to contribute to sign language translation and interpreting, theatricalism, and verbal-visuality studies.
Based on dialogism, as proposed by Bakhtin and the Circle, we examined utterances that are in a discursive and ideological chain and, for this analysis of Libras interpreting, took into account the text produced in theatre performances by actors and professional SLTIs.
Investigating it beyond its verbal dimension, we considered it as an organic whole that is materialized at the very moment theatrical scenes happen.